– Geographic information systems (GIS) published on the web are called WebGIS. A WebGIS is thus the extension to the web application created and developed to manage numeric cartography. A WebGIS project is distinguished from a GIS project for the specific purposes of communication and information sharing with other users.

– The information, which are territorial, geographic or socio-economic, have had paper as the main support in the past: the amount of data and the impossibility of their overlap at the end of analysis, has made this support obsolete for a series of operations such as monitoring or the territorial administration.

– Information systems arise from the need to collect, process, manage, provide all the responsible decision-makers with a large amount of data and information relating to the territory. The practical impossibility of representing the world over, the superfluity and the pointlessness of certain data, lead to the formation of a conceptual model of reality that simulates, in a synthetic way, the real world: precisely on this model, based only on information accessible and relevant to the goal, will the analysis and decisions be made.


















The regional technical paper (abbreviated CTR) is a type of topographic map produced by the regions of Italy to represent their own territory.

These are technical papers since they represent the elements without changing its size and position, but showing the actual projection. Objects such as buildings and roads are represented and then with the true form of their perimeter as seen from the top, and not replacing them with visual cues. In fact this is a map with a scale large enough to appreciate these details; standard scales are 1:5 000 and 1:10 000, but can also be reached on major scales. This makes them suitable papers for design activities of works extended on the territory and urban planning, from which they get their name of technical papers. They are also suitable act as a basis for various types of thematic maps.

The classification of CTR, i.e. the grating used to divide the Italian territory in individual cartographic tables, relies on the official Map of Italy produced by the Military Geographic Institute. In particular, the series 50 of the map of Italy and consists of 652 sheets on a scale of 1: 50 000, numbered starting from the north and west, each representing a rectangle of 20 ‘ × 12’ (in longitude and latitude). To determine the edges of the individual CTR, the national 1:50 000 sheets are divided into 4 ×4 obtaining from each 16 “sections” on a scale of 1:10 000, which constitute areas 5 ‘ × 3’ aligned with meridians and parallels. The sections are further divided into 2 ×2 obtaining 4 “elements” on a scale of 1: 5 000, i.e. areas of 2 ‘ 30 ” × 1 ‘ 30 “. The datum and coordinate system used to draw the CTR are not necessarily the same as that used by the rectangles of classification (50 series is an UTM-ED50), but may vary from region to region, usually by using the projection of Gauss-Boaga. Also the linear dimensions of the tables vary, depending on the latitude: at the height of Rome, the sections represent about 6.9 ×5.5 km and the elements about 3.4 ×2.8 km.

To identify a CTR table a name is used, corresponding to the toponym of the main locations contained in the table, and a numeric code of six digits. The first three digits are the identification number of the sheet of the Map of Italy (from 001 to 652), the next two identify the section of the grid 4 ×4 being progressively numbered from the west and the north (from 01 to 16), and the last digit is 0 if there is reference to the entire section or 1-4 if you reference one of the elements, numbered clockwise starting from the northeast.


An orthophoto or orthophotography is an aerial photograph that has been geometrically corrected (that is, one which has undergone a process of orthorectification) and georeferenced so that the representation scale of photography is uniform, i.e. the photo can be considered equivalent to a map.


Thermography is a technique of non-destructive examination that is based on the acquisition of infrared images. [1] There are two methods for the application of thermography: remote sensing thermography and contact thermography. Remote sensing thermography is used mainly in construction, while contact thermography is based on the use of detectors in liquid crystals and predominantly found use in the medical field and in particular in the diagnosis of breast cancer call breast thermography.

The term thermography refers to the two-dimensional visualisation of the extent of radiation. Through the use of a thermal imaging camera (tool to perform checks of thermographic type) is performing non-destructive and not-intrusive tests. Thermal imaging cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and perform related measures with the emission of these radiations.

This tool is able to detect the temperatures of the bodies analysed through the measurement of the intensity of the infrared radiation emitted from the body under examination. All objects at a temperature above absolute zero emit radiation in the infrared range.

Thermography allows you to view absolute values and temperature variations of the objects, regardless of their lighting in the visible range. The amount of radiation emitted increases in proportion to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of an object.

The correlation between solar radiation and temperature, is provided by the Stefan-Boltzman law [ 2]:

Q = \varepsilon \sigma T^4
Where σ is the constant of Stefan-Boltzmann and is value is 5.6703 × 10- 8W•m- 2 •K-4, ε and the emissivity of the surface issuer (variable between the theoretical limits 0 and 1 ) and T is its absolute temperature. Thermography allows for the identification of anomalies in the emission of energy and therefore, for equal emissivity, thermal anomalies.

Thermography plays an essential role in non-destructive investigations. The technique applied today is certainly more than those that commonly are the expectations of a traditional survey. This is due to the technical update of the instruments. The thermographic method today finds application in many sectors: steel, construction, veterinary, chemical industry, cultural heritage, aeronautics, automotive, protection of the environment.


The integrated aero-photo-grammetric filming occurs according to predetermined routes (flight plan) and in such a way as to ensure full coverage of the territory. The pictures are taken in succession and at regular intervals (stripe) so as to ensure an overlap of approximately 60% between adjacent frames (longitudinal covering). The overlap is necessary to allow stereoscopic vision. The more contiguous stripes, with the overlapping generally ranging between 20 % and 40% (covering side) form an aerial photogrammetry block.


Representation of a cartography raster or vector in which points, lines or surfaces are associated with symbols, screens or colours that represent the result of a quality analysis (land use, illegal building, regulated ground zones, intensity of traffic on a road, etc.).


GIS technology integrates the most common operations of analysis in the database, such as queries and statistical analysis with the benefits of geographical and spatial analysis of the cartographic data on maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it a useful tool in an extensive field of application in the private and public sphere for the interpretation of events, the prediction of the results and the planning of future strategies.
GIS are the state of the art in territorial information management, territorial planning and the analysis of environmental phenomena.


Georeferencing is the attribution to a given information relating to its geographical location; this position is expressed in a particular geodetic reference system. Georeferencing is used in GIS, so much so as to be applied substantially to every current element: pixel components of a raster image, vector elements such as points, lines or polygons and even annotations.


This instrument has all the characteristic functions of a Geographical Information System:

  • navigating the maps
  • unwinding of territorial research (via address or cadastral references)
  • territorial analysis via superposition of thematic layers
  • use of measuring instruments (length, area, etc.)
  • map questioning to consult associated databases
  • spatial analysis